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Safety testing and certification for large energy storage systems.
Large batteries present unique safety considerations, as they contain high levels of energy and may utilize hazardous materials and moving parts. UL works hand in hand with system integrators and OEMs to better understand and address these issues.
Safety testing and certification for energy storage systems
UL 9540 is the new standard for safety of energy storage systems which includes electrical, electro-chemical, mechanical and other types of energy storage technologies for systems intended to supply electrical energy. The standard covers a comprehensive review of energy storage systems, covering charging and discharging, protection, control, communication between devices, fluids movement and other aspects.
UL 9540 provides a basis for safety of energy storage systems that includes reference to critical technology safety standards and codes such as UL 1973, UL 1741, IEEE 1547 and 1547.1, CSA FC1, NFPA 70, NFPA 2, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and ASME B31 piping codes. It includes additional criteria to address materials, enclosures (including walk-in enclosures), controls, piping, utility grid interaction (including special purpose interactive systems), hazardous moving parts, signage and instructions.
ESS certification can be achieved through a product testing engagement (typically utilized for off-the-shelf ESS products) or through an on-site, non-destructive field evaluation for unique systems.
Performance and Reliability testing
UL also offers performance and reliability testing, including capacity claims, charge and discharge cycling, overcharge abilities, environmental and altitude simulation, and combined temperature cycling and vibration testing.
UL also offers performance certification marks for:
- IEC 60086-1 and IEC 60086-2: Primary Batteries – Part 1: General; and Primary Batteries – Part 2: Physical and Electrical Specifications
- IEC 61960: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries for Portable Applications
- IEC 61951-1: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Portable Sealed Rechargeable Single Cells – Part 1: Nickel-cadmium
- IEC 61951-2: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Portable Sealed Rechargeable Single Cells – Part 2: Nickel-metal Hydride
UL also conducts custom research to help identify and address the unique performance and safety issues associated with large energy storage systems. Research offerings include:
- Simulation of fire suppression/containment system
- Full-scale energy storage system fire demos (for firefighter safety)
- Computer modeling and scaling
- Construction assessment
- Forensic analysis/failure investigation
- FTA of failure modes
- Internal short circuit/failure
- Smoke characterization
- Failure propagation
- Battery aging study