Enhance overall safety of batteries for electric vehicles, manage short circuiting, overheating and thermal runway risks.
UL offers testing of battery products for use in a variety of motive or transportation-related applications. Through electrical, mechanical and environmental testing, we can evaluate the ability of large batteries to safely withstand simulated abuse conditions based upon the manufacturer’s specified charge and discharge parameters.
UL works with industry stakeholders to design Standards that help mitigate the potential risk of fire and electrical hazards, and enhance the overall safety of batteries for electric vehicles.
To address the key industry challenges, UL offers two Standards for large format batteries in EV:
- UL 2271 for light electric vehicles (LEV)
- UL 2580 for electric vehicles (EV)
In addition, UL has developed a Standard to address larger battery packs intended to replace traditional engine-generated power or be used when a grid-connected power source is unavailable. UL 2743 for portable power packs can address a variety of battery uses, ranging from automotive jump-starters to survival backup power systems.
UL can test and certify lead-acid, lithium and other various forms of electrical, electro-chemical, thermal, and mechanical energy used in uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and energy storage devices.
UL published the first safety standard, UL 9540, for energy storage systems (ESS). The Standard includes electrical, electro-chemical, mechanical and other types of energy storage technologies for systems intended to supply electrical energy. UL 9540 covers a comprehensive review of energy storage systems, including charging, discharging, protection, control, communication between devices, fluids movement and other aspects.
UL 9540 provides a basis for the safety of ESS that includes reference to critical technology safety standards and codes, such as UL 1973, UL 1741, IEEE 1547 and 1547.1, CSA FC1, NFPA 70, NFPA 2, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and ASME B31 piping codes. UL 9540 includes additional criteria to address materials, enclosures (including walk-in enclosures), controls, piping, utility grid interaction (including special purpose interactive systems), hazardous moving parts, signage and instructions.
ESS certification can be achieved through a product testing engagement (typically for off-the-shelf ESS products) or through an on-site, non-destructive field evaluation for unique systems.
UL can also address the risks of stationary batteries by evaluating to UL 1973 (LER and Stationary Batteries). We can also provide advisory or additional testing services to facilitate the entrance into targeted country markets.
Functional Safety for Battery Management Systems
UL functional safety for battery management systems tests the safety of the sophisticated software crucial to the proper and safe functioning of the battery module or pack, along with how the battery interacts with the system as a whole. UL functional safety certification provides everyone in the product value chain with peace of mind and helps prevent the costly consequences of malfunction.
UL scientists are continually developing new methods to help ensure the safe use of lithium-ion batteries. As an example, we developed a unique thermal model of the common 18650 lithium-ion battery cell that enhances our ability to mathematically simulate, explore and understand the causes and severity of internal short circuits.
We have also applied our materials science expertise to develop a testing approach that establishes a more robust evaluation of lithium-ion battery separators. Additionally, we established a comprehensive thermal analysis capability that enables us to identify and measure exothermic and endothermic reactions within a lithium-ion battery cell.
Safety standards for testing and/or certification and local country marks
UL tests and certifies battery modules and packs to diverse standards. We also assist with transportation and regional standards as well as assist with obtaining local country marks, including:
- UL 991 and UL 1998: Standard for Tests for Safety-Related Controls Employing Solid-State Devices; and Standard for Software in Programmable Components
- UL 1973: Standard for Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications
- UL 1989: Standard for Standby Batteries
- IATA / UN DOT / UN 38.3 T1-5, T7 (or IEC 62281): Safety of Primary and Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries During Transport
- IEC 62133 1st/2nd Edition: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Safety Requirements for Portable Sealed Secondary Cells, and for Batteries Made From Them, for Use in Portable Applications
- ISO/FDIS 12405-3: Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles – Test Specification for Lithium-ion Traction Battery Packs and Systems – Part 3: Safety Performance Requirements
- SAE J2464: Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing
- SAE J2929: Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard – Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells
- CNS 15364: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Safety Requirements for Portable Sealed Secondary Cells, and for Batteries Made From Them, for Use in Portable Applications (China / Taiwan)
- CNS 15387: Safety Test Method for Secondary Lithium Batteries for Electric Motorcycles (China / Taiwan)
- CNS 15424-1 and CNS 15424-2: Electric Motorcycle Battery System –Part 1: The Safety Requirements of Removable Battery System; and Electric Motorcycle Battery System—Part 2: The Safety Requirements of Fixed Battery System (China / Taiwan)
- JIS C 8715-2: Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries for Use in Industrial Applications—Part 2: Tests and Requirements of Safety (Stationary – Japan)
- CQC Mark Certification (China)
- QC/T 743: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles (China)
- QC/T 744: Nickel-metal Hydride Batteries for Electric Vehicles (China)
- QC/T 741: Ultra-Capacitors for Electric Vehicles (China)
- GB/Z 18333.2: Zinc-air Batteries for Electric Road Vehicles (China)
- QB/T 2947.3: Electric Bicycles-Cell or Battery and Chargers Part 3: Li-ion Batteries and Chargers (China)
- CE Marking (Europe)
- D Mark (Denmark)
- DENAN Ordinance Article 1, Appendix 9 (Japan)
- GOST-R (Russia)
- KC Mark (Korea)
- MC (Malaysia)
- RPC Mark (Taiwan)
- PSE Mark (Japan)
- S Mark (Japan)
- SBA 1101 (Stationary – Japan)
- ANATEL Certification (Brazil)
- VPC Certification (Taiwan)
- GS Mark (Germany/EU)
Performance and reliability testing
UL also offers performance and reliability testing, including capacity claims, charge/discharge cycling, overcharge abilities, environmental and altitude simulation, and combined temperature cycling and vibration testing.
We offer performance certification marks for the following standards:
- IEC 60086-1 and IEC 60086-2: Primary Batteries – Part 1: General; and Primary Batteries – Part 2: Physical and Electrical Specifications
- IEC 61960: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries for Portable Applications
- IEC 61951-1: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Portable Sealed Rechargeable Single Cells – Part 1: Nickel-cadmium
- IEC 61951-2: Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-acid Electrolytes – Portable Sealed Rechargeable Single Cells – Part 2: Nickel-metal Hydride
UL also conducts custom research for manufacturers to help identify and address performance and safety issues. Research offerings include:
- Battery aging study
- Computer modeling and scaling
- Construction assessment
- Failure propagation
- Forensic analysis/ failure investigation
- FTA of failure modes
- Internal short circuit/failure
- Smoke characterization